Inflammation refers to a specific tissue reaction, which can have various causes. An inflammatory tissue reaction is intended to eliminate the damaging stimulus or prevent it from spreading. An inflammatory reaction can spread locally via the blood system or lymphatic system, or it can be generalised.
The five typical signs of inflammation are redness, swelling, heat, pain, and limited function.
Possible causes are bacteria and their toxins as well as viruses and fungi. Other possible causes include chemical stimuli (e.g. poisons, acids, or bases) or substances produced by allergic reactions. Mechanical stimuli such as shock, heat/cold, or radiation may also cause inflammatory responses in tissues.
Treating inflammation primarily entails removing the triggering stimulus and administering anti-inflammatory drug therapy.